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- Post-Disaster Reconstruction And Change PDF | Social science, Change, Good books
- Risk, Transformation and Adaptation: Ideas for Reframing Approaches to Disaster Risk Reduction
- Researchers Meeting Abstracts
We then discuss the development of a household-level survey that attempts to quantify social connectedness, a complex interplay of individual identities, vulnerabilities, power dynamics, and social structures. In conclusion, we present some preliminary results from the first round of data collection, and their implications for development and humanitarian actors. Emergency managers perform a critical role in the hurricane evacuation decision-making process.
They are part of a team of analysts ranging from external entities, such as the National Weather Service and the National Hurricane Center, as well as state and county agencies, including policy groups made up of local leaders from education, government, transportation, social services, and many others.
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The emergency manager occupies a unique role as a type of middle person situated between technological specialists meteorologists and others , community leaders, and the citizens of his or her jurisdiction. This study gathered interview data from 20 county emergency managers in Florida. The purpose of the exploratory study was to understand the decision-making processes involved in making hurricane evacuation orders. The findings show that emergency managers work to reduce uncertainty by factoring in data from statistical models of the projected track of a hurricane, as well as by using models that estimate evacuation transportation logistics e.
Emergency managers find themselves in a middle position. Uncertainty in such decision-making stems from a variety of sources detailed in the study. My research examines how people from diverse refugee backgrounds learn about local hazards and find safety as they settle into new homes, cities, and suburbs in Australia. This is important to understand because people who have been displaced by disasters, conflict, and persecution are, most of all, looking for safety. Or, is safety assumed once people have been resettled?
Further, how do people from refugee backgrounds draw on their past experiences and everyday practices and relationships to feel safe and secure? For future work, I recommend adopting a person-centered approach to co-learning disaster resilience with people from diverse refugee backgrounds. My research demonstrates how this can be achieved through the design and implementation of collaborative, accountable, responsive, and empowering programs and services. This paper explores the discursive production of and response to environmental disaster, contextualized through the Deepwater Horizon disaster.
Confronting the spatiotemporal tensions of chronic and acute disaster, I interrogate the politics of visibility and measurement to illuminate biopolitical effects and lived experiences of extractive disaster. I re conceptualize environmental disaster to account for self-legitimating cycles of disaster production and response and examine socio environmental disasters as foundational to a global political economy fueled by oil. As such, many governing strategies employed to respond to extractive disasters are intimately bound up within the same systemic processes that have created them.
Post-Disaster Reconstruction And Change PDF | Social science, Change, Good books
Utilizing the tools of immanent critique, I advance an understanding of extraction as a logic of disaster governance and expose contradictions within quickly deployed mitigation efforts that often produce second- and third-order disasters and perpetuate disastrous systems of governance. Governance of disaster is thus a process of accumulation rather than a result of technological failure, human error, or ineffective regulation. Through intersecting vectors of extractive governmentality, I conclude that disaster is rendered legible, manageable, profitable, and litigable.
There is a need for planners to understand recovery processes to effectively provide communities with needed tools. This poster presents background research that will be used to provide evidence-based guidance to these professionals. What do they need to know about disaster recovery to better support their communities? How would they like to learn or train in disaster recovery?
Risk, Transformation and Adaptation: Ideas for Reframing Approaches to Disaster Risk Reduction
A systematic literature review on community recovery was carried out. As a result, an electronic library and annotated bibliography was made publicly available on the APA website. The systematic literature review helped frame the interview and survey questions. Interviews were coded and analyzed using qualitative research methods.
Results from these data will be presented. Anticipating future natural disaster risks, and the associated consequences, is one of the main challenges facing disaster risk management. Our understanding of the future is heavily rooted in the consequences of the past, which presents two issues: Do the losses, or consequences, of our past record accurately reflect the potential consequences of the future? Through an interdisciplinary approach bridging engineering, science, history, and psychology, we formalize the use of a counterfactual, consequence-driven framework in order to better capture the full range of possible consequences from past events.
Specifically, in this presentation, we will show how this framework can be used to develop a catalog of consequential events, even in a place where such records do not exist. We exercise the framework for multiple hazards on past near-miss events of Singapore, a highly urban island city-state. Through this lens, we will discuss how even past black swan events unforeseen, low-probability, high-impact events can underestimate consequences and unintentionally limit our imagination for future disaster preparedness.
After the Nepal earthquake, the government requested and allocated recovery aid based on the amount of building damage. Two questions arise from the use of building damage estimates for these decisions: Were the building damage estimates accurate? Is building damage necessarily the most useful metric for aid allocation?
In the Informatics for Equitable Recovery project, our team of engineers, social scientists, and civil society organizations is trying to address these questions. Our project aims to develop more accurate damage estimates, assess additional socioeconomic vulnerabilities and impacts that lead to low recovery, and model impact as a combination of damage and socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Currently, our team has been able to model damage and is undertaking an extensive household survey to assess the factors that lead to recovery. In this presentation, I will discuss both the potential and challenges for developing informatics to inform recovery plans, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where many countries have little pre-existing data.
Most importantly, our goal is that this presentation will lead to a discussion of the limitations of technological solutions, such as improved informatics, in complex techno-political decisions, such as recovery planning. In a typical crisis infused with uncertainty, leaders have to make sense of cues emerging from a dynamic environment and construct meanings from crisis situations. This research differs from other studies in three ways. First, there have been extensive case studies on crisis sensemaking, which have suggested further large sample size tests. Second, because of limited access to senior executives in times of crisis, most current studies examine the operational level.
Third, most survey or experiment-based behavior research studies still rely on students or online samples, methods which have relatively low external validity.
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To investigate this behavior, this research aims to capture the dynamic based on a unique Chinese phenomenon, Pishi. Pishi refers to instructions written by leaders on internal official documents to demonstrate their decisions on reported affairs. In the Chinese bureaucratic system, Pishi is widely used to issue commands crossing hierarchies in both normal and crisis situations, which are archived as decision records.
This research tries to uncover sensemaking behaviors based on data collected from senior executive simulation exercises with a typical scenario of the Pishi system. We examine two inter-related issues in interdisciplinary hazards work: the networks of stakeholders involved in local planning processes and the network of plan documents generated by planning processes.
We pursue an in-depth case analysis of Tulsa, Oklahoma, a community recognized for over 40 years as a national leader in long-term risk reduction, now often framed as planning for resilience. In this context we seek to answer three main questions: What are the structures of the dynamic networks of stakeholders and plans in Tulsa, with particular focus on connections between planners and emergency managers? We draw on and extend well-developed research methods and analytical techniques, including content analysis and network analysis.
We collect and analyze a wide array of local plans related to risk reduction. We replicate and refine content analysis tools used to measure planning process characteristics, organizational involvement, plan integration, and policies and actions. We also conduct interviews and web-based surveys with key stakeholders. Altogether, we apply network concepts and analytical techniques and triangulate within the case study to better understand how a community can create a resilient network of plans and people to develop and implement those plans.
Researchers Meeting Abstracts
Flood events are exacting an increasingly heavy toll on communities. Along with broader trends in climate change and coastal urbanization, local land use decisions are important contributing factors.
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Urban planning and zoning guide and regulate land use, but some uses are more suitable than others in flood-prone areas, e. We spatially evaluate future land use planning and zoning to reveal whether a community is being guided and regulated in a more suitable less vulnerable direction with respect to land use in flood-hazard areas, as well as instances of incongruity and locations where each may effect an increase in vulnerability.
Hot spots of especially low suitability and areas of conflict between future land use guidance and zoning are also revealed. Such results may contribute to focused reevaluations aimed at strengthening resilience through land use. There is a substantial knowledge base concerning the variables that influence the decisions that people make when faced with an approaching hurricane. However, there exists a research gap in evacuation decision-making with respect to investigating these decisions relative to each other in temporal terms.
To this end, our interdisciplinary research team crafted an approach for investigating evacuation decision ordering. The team conducted a post-Hurricane Matthew household survey that integrated research questions about six decisions related to hurricane evacuations: evacuate or stay, time to leave, evacuation accommodations, evacuation destination, travel mode, and travel route. Using this survey data, the team began a multinomial random parameter modeling process for the first decisions that survey respondents reported.
The first decisions were grouped into four categories: evacuate or stay by itself; accommodations by itself; evacuate or stay with any other first decision; and any other combination.
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The most abundant first-decision set was the choice of whether or not to evacuate by itself. The work involves architects, sociologists, and disaster researchers. It is a mixed-methods approach incorporating key informant interviews, participant observation and document analysis, supplemented by Official Information Act requests.